Cosmology Statement
The original statement was found on www.cosmologystatement.org

 

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community
cosmologystatement.org

(Published in New Scientist, May 22, 2004)

The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory.

But the big bang theory can't survive without these fudge factors. Without the hypothetical inflation field, the big bang does not predict the smooth, isotropic cosmic background radiation that is observed, because there would be no way for parts of the universe that are now more than a few degrees away in the sky to come to the same temperature and thus emit the same amount of microwave radiation.

Without some kind of dark matter, unlike any that we have observed on Earth despite 20 years of experiments, big-bang theory makes contradictory predictions for the density of matter in the universe. Inflation requires a density 20 times larger than that implied by big bang nucleosynthesis, the theory's explanation of the origin of the light elements. And without dark energy, the theory predicts that the universe is only about 8 billion years old, which is billions of years younger than the age of many stars in our galaxy.

What is more, the big bang theory can boast of no quantitative predictions that have subsequently been validated by observation. The successes claimed by the theory's supporters consist of its ability to retrospectively fit observations with a steadily increasing array of adjustable parameters, just as the old Earth-centered cosmology of Ptolemy needed layer upon layer of epicycles.

Yet the big bang is not the only framework available for understanding the history of the universe. Plasma cosmology and the steady-state model both hypothesize an evolving universe without beginning or end. These and other alternative approaches can also explain the basic phenomena of the cosmos, including the abundances of light elements, the generation of large-scale structure, the cosmic background radiation, and how the redshift of far-away galaxies increases with distance. They have even predicted new phenomena that were subsequently observed, something the big bang has failed to do.

Supporters of the big bang theory may retort that these theories do not explain every cosmological observation. But that is scarcely surprising, as their development has been severely hampered by a complete lack of funding. Indeed, such questions and alternatives cannot even now be freely discussed and examined. An open exchange of ideas is lacking in most mainstream conferences. Whereas Richard Feynman could say that "science is the culture of doubt", in cosmology today doubt and dissent are not tolerated, and young scientists learn to remain silent if they have something negative to say about the standard big bang model. Those who doubt the big bang fear that saying so will cost them their funding.

Even observations are now interpreted through this biased filter, judged right or wrong depending on whether or not they support the big bang. So discordant data on red shifts, lithium and helium abundances, and galaxy distribution, among other topics, are ignored or ridiculed. This reflects a growing dogmatic mindset that is alien to the spirit of free scientific inquiry.

Today, virtually all financial and experimental resources in cosmology are devoted to big bang studies. Funding comes from only a few sources, and all the peer-review committees that control them are dominated by supporters of the big bang. As a result, the dominance of the big bang within the field has become self-sustaining, irrespective of the scientific validity of the theory.

Giving support only to projects within the big bang framework undermines a fundamental element of the scientific method -- the constant testing of theory against observation. Such a restriction makes unbiased discussion and research impossible. To redress this, we urge those agencies that fund work in cosmology to set aside a significant fraction of their funding for investigations into alternative theories and observational contradictions of the big bang. To avoid bias, the peer review committee that allocates such funds could be composed of astronomers and physicists from outside the field of cosmology.

Allocating funding to investigations into the big bang's validity, and its alternatives, would allow the scientific process to determine our most accurate model of the history of the universe.



Original Signers

(Institutions for identification only)



Halton Arp, Max-Planck-Institute Fur Astrophysik (Germany)
Andre Koch Torres Assis, State University of Campinas (Brazil)
Yuri Baryshev, Astronomical Institute, St. Petersburg State University (Russia)
Ari Brynjolfsson, Applied Radiation Industries (USA)
Hermann Bondi, Churchill College, University of Cambridge (UK)
Timothy Eastman, Plasmas International (USA)
Chuck Gallo, Superconix, Inc.(USA)
Thomas Gold, Cornell University (emeritus) (USA)
Amitabha Ghosh, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India)
Walter J. Heikkila, University of Texas at Dallas (USA)    
Michael Ibison, Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin (USA)
Thomas Jarboe, University of Washington (USA)
Jerry W. Jensen, ATK Propulsion (USA)
Menas Kafatos, George Mason University (USA)
Eric J. Lerner, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics (USA)
Paul Marmet, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics (retired) (Canada)
Paola Marziani, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova (Italy)
Gregory Meholic, The Aerospace Corporation (USA)
Jacques Moret-Bailly, Université Dijon (retired) (France)
Jayant Narlikar, IUCAA(emeritus) and College de France (India,France)
Marcos Cesar Danhoni Neves, State University of Maringá (Brazil)
Charles D. Orth, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA)
R. David Pace, Lyon College (USA)
Georges Paturel, Observatoire de Lyon (France)
Jean-Claude Pecker, College de France (France)
Anthony L. Peratt, Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA)
Bill Peter, BAE Systems Advanced Technologies (USA)
David Roscoe, Sheffield University (UK)
Malabika Roy, George Mason University (USA)
Sisir Roy, George Mason University (USA);
Konrad Rudnicki, Jagiellonian University (Poland)
Domingos S.L. Soares, Federal University of Minas Gerais (Brazil)
John L. West, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (USA)
James F. Woodward, California State University, Fullerton (USA)


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New signers of the Open letter since publication

Total: 484



1
Jorge Marao
Universidade Estadual de Londrina
Brazil
2
Martin John Baker
Loretto School Musselburgh
UK
3
Peter J Carroll
Psychonaut Institute
UK
4
Roger Y. Gouin
Ecole Superieure d'Electricite
France
5
John Murray
Sunyata Composite Ltd
UK
6
Jonathan Chambers
University of Sheffield
UK
7
Michel A. Duguay
Laval University
Canada
8
Qi Pan
Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge
UK
9
Fred Rost
University of NSW (Emeritus)
Australia
10
Louis Hissink
Consulting Geologist
Australia
11
Hetu Sheth
Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
India
12
Lassi Hyvärinen
IBM(Ret)
France
13
Max Whisson
University of Melbourne
Australia
14
R.S.Griffiths
CADAS
UK
15
Adolf Muenker
Brane Industries
USA
16
Emre Isik
Akdeniz University
Turkey
17
Felipe de Oliveira Alves
Federal University of Minas Gerais
Brazil
18
Kim George
Curtin University of Technology
Australia
19
Tom Van Flandern
Meta Research
USA
20
Doneley Watson
IBM (ret.)
USA
21
Fred Alan Wolf
Have Brains / Will Travel
USA
22
Robert Wood
IEEE
Canada
23
D. W. Harris
L-3 Communications
USA
24
Eugene Sittampalam
Engineering consultant
Sri Lanka
25
Joseph.B. Krieger
Brooklyn College, CUNY
USA
26
Peter F. Richiuso
NASA, KSC
USA
27
Roger A. Rydin
University of Virginia (Emeritus)
USA
28
Stefan Rydstrom
Royal Institute of Technology
Sweden
29
Sylvan J. Hotch
The MITRE Corporation (Retired)
USA
30
Thomas R. Love
CSU Dominguez Hills
USA
31
Andrew Coles
Embedded Systems
USA
32
Eit Gaastra
infinite universe researcher
The Netherlands
33
Franco Selleri
Università di Bari, Dipartimento di Fisica
Italy
34
Gerald Pease
The Aerospace Corporation
USA
35
Miroslaw Kozlowski
Warsaw University (emeritus)
Poland
36
John Hartnett
School of Physics, University of Western Australia
Australia
37
Robert Zubrin
Pioneer Astronautics
USA
38
Tibor Gasparik
SUNY at Stony Brook
USA
39
Alexandre Losev
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Bulgaria
40
Henry Hall
University of Manchester
UK
41
José da Silva
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Brazil
42
Markus Rohner
Griesser AG
Switzerland
43
William C. Mitchell
Institute for Advanced Cosmological Studies 
USA
44
Cristian R. Ghezzi
Universidade Estadual de Campinas
Brazil
45
Daniel Nicolato
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Brazil
46
Gregory M. Salyards
US Naval Sea Systems Command (ret.)
USA
47
Luiz Carlos Barbosa
Unicamp
Brazil
48
Luiz Carlos Jafelice
Federal University of the Rio Grande do Norte
Brazil
49
Michael Sosteric
Athabasca University
Canada
50
Steven Langley Guy
University of Elizabeth (Physics Department)
Australia
51
Robert Fritzius
Shade Tree Physics
USA
52
Irineu Gomes Varella
Escola Municipal de Astrofísica
Brazil
53
Mauro Cosentino
University of São Paulo
Brazil
54
Moacir Lacerda
Univeersidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul
Brazil
55
Roberto Assumpcao
PUC Minas
Brazil
56
Roberto Lopes Parra
University of Sao Paulo
Brazil
57
Ronaldo Camppos Batista
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Brazil
58
Ermenegildo Caccese
University of Basilicata
Italy
59
Felipe Sofia Zanuzzo
Federal University of São Carlos
Brazil
60
Edival de Morais
Sociedade Brasileira de Física
Brazil
61
Graham Coupe
KAZ Technology Services
Australia
62
Jose B. Almeida
University of Minho
Portugal
63
Antonio Cleiton
Laboratório de Sistemas Complexos - UFPI
Brazil
64
Sergey Karpov
L.V.Kirensky Institute of Physics 
Russia
65
Wagner Patrick
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Brazil
66
Sokolov Vladimir
Special Astrophysical Observatory  of  RAS
Russia
67
Edwin G. Schasteen
TAP-TEN Research Foundation International
USA
68
Gerry Zeitlin
openseti.org
USA
69
Henry H. Bauer
Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University
USA
70
Yasha Fard
H.R. Cosmology Institute
Canada
71
Tobias Keller
ETH (SFIT) Zurich, Earth Sciences
Switzerland
72
Deborah Foch
Center for the Study of Extraterrestrial Intelligence
USA
73
Henry Reynolds
UC Santa Cruz
USA
74
Paramahamsa Tewari
Nuclear Power Corporation (ret.)
India
75
Jouko Seppänen
Helsinki University of Technology
Finnland
76
Cristiane Ribeiro Bernardes
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Brazil
77
Eric Blievernicht
TRW
USA
78
Dr. Robert Bennett
Kolbe Center
USA
79
Hilton Ratcliffe
Astronomical Society of South Africa
South Africa
80
Lars Wåhlin
Colutron Research Corporation
USA
81
Riccardo Scarpa
European Southern Observatory
Italy
82
Olivier Marco
European Southern Observatory
France
83
Joseph Garcia
International Radiation Protection
Germany
84
Arkadiusz Jadczyk
International Institute of Mathematical Physics
Lithuania
85
Jean de Pontcharra
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique
France
86
Gerardus D. Bouw
Baldwin-Wallace College
USA
87
Josef Lutz
Chemnitz University of Technology
Germany
88
Harold E. Puthoff
Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin
USA
89
Klaus Fischer
Universität Trier
Germany
90
Werner Holzmüller
University Leipzig
Germany
91
Sol Aisenberg
International Technology Group
USA
92
Richard Gancarczyk
University of Nottingham
UK
93
Steve Humphry
Murdoch University
Australia
94
Alberto Bolognesi
Università di Perugia
Italy
95
Daniele Carosati
Armenzano Observatory
Italy
96
Brendan Dean
H.R. Cosmology Institute
Canada
97
W. Jim Jastrzebski
Warsaw University
Poland
98
Rainer Herrmann
TEWS-Elektronik
Germany
99
Felix Pharand
University of Montreal
Canada
100
Jerry Bergman
Northwest State University
USA 
101
Tibor Gasparik
SUNY at Stony Brook
USA
102
Rei Gunn
University of Nantucket
USA
103
Sinan Alis
Eyuboglu Twin Observatories
Turkey
104
Esat Rennan Pekünlü
University of EGE
Turkey
105
Anne M. Hofmeister
Washington U. 
USA
106
Quentin Foreman
IEEE
New Zealand
107
Y. P. Varshni
University of Ottawa
Canada
108
Robert Martinek
McMaster University
Canada
109
Bob Criss 
Washington University
USA
110
Sol Aisenberg
International Technology Group
USA
111
Paul LaViolette
The Starburst Foundation
USA
112
Seetesh Pandé
Universite Claude Bernard
Lyon France
113
TAHIR MAQSOOD
PSA
Pakistan
114
Hartmut Traunmüller
University of Stockholm
Sweden
115
Aaron Blake
USAF
USA
116
M. Ross Fergus
University of Memphis
USA
117
Sonu Bhaskar
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
India
118
Frederico V. F.
Lima Universidade de Sao Paulo
Brazil
119
Andrei Kirilyuk
Institute of Metal Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Ukraine
120
Christian Jooss
Institut fuer Materialphysik, University of Goettingen
Germany
121
Sonu Bhaskar
BCISR
India
122
Robert O. Myers
ROM Technologies
USA
123
Ana Cristina Oliveira
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Brazil
124
Jorge Francisco Maldonado Serrano
UIS
Colombia
125
Pasquale Galianni
Dipartimento di Fisica Università di Lecce
Italy
126
Martín López-Corredoira
Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
Spain
127
Michael A. Ivanov
Belarus State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics
Belarus
128
Xiao Jianhua
Shanghai Jiaotong University
China
129
Pierre J. Beaujon
Hoornbeeck College
The Netherlands
130
J.Georg von Brzeski
Helios Labs.
USA
131
vidyardhi nanduri
Cosmology Research Center
India
132
Mike Rotch
NBSA
USA
133
Swee Eng
AW Royal College of Pathologists
Singapore
134
Ricardo Rodríguez
La Laguna University
Spain
135
Linda Camp
Harvard University
USA
136
James B. Schwartz
The Noah's Ark Research Foundation
Philippines
137
Marshall Douglas Smith
TeddySpeaks Foundation
USA
138
Abbé Grumel
Association Copernic
France
139
Ives van Leth
Waterboard Utrecht
The Netherlands
140
Francis Michael C. Perez
Department of Transportation
USA
141
AHMED A.
EL-DASH UNICAMP
Brazil
142
Alek Atevik
Skopje Astronomy Society
Macedonia
143
Peter Rowlands
University of Liverpool
UK
144
Robert Day
Suntola Consulting, Ltd.
USA
145
Sousa Loureiro
Portugal
146
Maingot Fabrice
Université Louis Pasteur
France
147
Kris Krogh
University of California
USA
148
Pierre-Marie Robitaille
The Ohio State University
United States
149
Charles Creager Jr
Creation Research Society
United States
150
The University of the West Indies, St Augustine Campus
Trinidad and Tobago
151
Markus, Karsten
Wilhelm-Foerster-Observatory Berlin e.V
Germany
152
Jorge Maraoo
Universidade Estadual de Londrina
Brazil
153
Jim O'Reilly
Orion Consultants
USA
154
Robert MacKay
University of Warwick
UK
155
Chris Vermeulen
Astronomical Society of Southern Africa
South Africa
156
Emilson Pereira Leite
Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics
Brazil
157
Allen W Green
ATK Space Systems
USA
158
Ron Balsys
Central Queensland University
Australia
159
Paul ten Boom
University of New South Wales
Australia
160
The Empirical Church
USA
161
Don. C. Wilson
Process Technology and Development
USA
162
Raytheon Co.
USA
163
University of EGE
Turkey
164
Andrew M Uhl
Pennsylvania State Univeristy
USA
165
Independent_Researcher
Germany
166
John Caley
Omegafour Pty Ltd
Australia
167
Keith Scott-Mumby
Capital University for Medicine/California
USA
168
Michel  A.  Duguay
Laval University
Canada
169
Felipe de Oliveira Alves
Federal University of Minas Gerais
Brazil
170
Pablo Vasquez
New Jersey Institute of Technology
USA
171
S.N. Arteha
Space Research Institute
Russia
172
Aurea Garcia-Rissmann
UFSC
Brazil
173
Tom Walther
Southern Cross University Australia
Australia
174
Gordon Petrie
High Altitude Observatory, NCAR
USA
175
Roberto Caimmi
Astronomy Department, Padua University
Italy
176
Wieslaw  Sztumski
Silesian University
Poland
177
Hermann Dürkop
Nabla Systemberatung
Germany
178
Gero Rupprecht
European Southern Observatory
Germany
179
Marc Berndl
University of Toronto
Canada
180
Nico F. Benschop
Amspade Research
The Netherlands
181
John Wey
Idaho National Laboratory
USA
182
Independent_Researcher
USA
183
David C Ware
University of Auckland
New Zealand
184
Joseph J. Smulsky
Institute of Earth's Cryosphere Siberian Branch
Russia
185
Garth A Barber
independent researcher
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186
Alberto Bolognes
Independent Researcher
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187
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188
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189
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190
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191
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192
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193
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194
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195
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196
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197
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198
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199
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200
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201
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203
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205
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206
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214
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216
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217
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218
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219
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Waterboard Utrecht
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324
Etienne Bielen
Independent Researcher
Belgium
325
Steve Newman
Independent Researcher
USA
326
John Hunter
Independent Researcher
UK
327
Jeroen van der Rijst
Independent Researcher
The Netherlands
328
Thomas G. Franzel
Independent Researcher
USA
329
Bernhard Reddemann
Independent Researcher
Germany
330
Leo Sarasúa
Independent Researcher
The Netherlands
331
Edward Smith
Independent Researcher
USA
332
Gary Meade
Independent Researcher
USA
333
Stan Kabacinski
Independent Researcher
Australia
334
Jack Dejong
Independent Researcher
USA
335
Harry Costas
Independent Researcher
Australia
336
Andrei Wasylyk
Independent Researcher
Canada
337
Jack Ruijs
Independent Researcher
The Netherlands
338
James Marsen
Independent Researcher
USA
339
Edgar Paternina
Independent Researcher
Colombia
340
Ghertza Roman
Independent Researcher
Romania
341
Independent Researcher
Germany
342
Independent Researcher
Belgium,Skyne
343
Independent Researcher
USA
344
Michail Telegin
Independent Researcher
Russia
345
Independent Researcher
USA
346
Independent Researcher
UK
347
Charles L. Sanders
Independent Researcher
USA/Sout Korea
348
Alex Carlson
Independent Researcher
United States
349
Lyndon Ashmore
Independent Researcher
UK
350
Unaffiliated_Scientific_Researcher
Germany
351
Ingvar Astrand
Independent Researcher
Sweden
352
Olli Santavuori
Independent Researcher
Finland
353
Touho Ankka
Independent Researcher
Finland
354
Independent Researcher
Portugal
355
Sol Aisenberg
Independent Researcher
USA
356
Independent Researcher
Turkey
357
Independent Researcher
France
358
Independent Researcher
USA
359
Independent Researcher
France
360
Independent Researcher
United Kingdom
361
Abramyan G.L.
Independent Researcher
Russia
362
Independent Researcher
Slowakia
363
PhD, Independent_Researcher
Belgium
364
Ingvar Astrand
Independent Researcher
Sweden
365
Independent Researcher
Australia
366
Jed Shlackman
M.S. Ed. (LMHC, C.Ht.), Independent_Researcher 
USA
367
Independent Researcher
368
Guido Grzinic
Independent Researcher
Australia
369
Charles Weber
USA
370
David Gershon
USA
371
Peter G Smith
USA
372
Richard J. Lawrence
USA
373
Naszvadi László
Hungary
374
Roger W. Browne
USA
375
Bart Clauwens
The Netherlands
376
Noah Feiler-Poethke
USA
377
Jonathan Hardy
UK
378
John S. Kundrat
USA
379
Vincent Sauve
USA
380
Chris Somers
Australia
381
Jagroop Sahota
USA
382
Edgar Raab
Germany
383
Gordon Hogenson
USA
384
Burebista Dacia
Romania
385
Christel Hahn
Germany
386
Robert Angstrom
USA
387
Norman Chadwick
USA
388
Harley Orr
USA
389
Clive Martin-Ross
UK
390
Alasdair Martin
UK
391
Marcus Ellspermann
Germany
392
Bruce Richardson
USA
393
John Dill
USA
394
Judith Woollard
Australia
395
Michael Cyrek
USA
396
Randall Meyers
Italy
397
Craig Arend
USA
398
Onur Cantimur 
Turkey
399
Roland Scheel
France
400
Murat Isik 
Turkey
401
Markus Hellebrandt 
Germany
402
Mehmet Kara
Turkey
403
Abhishek Dey Das
India
404
D. N. Vazquez 
USA
405
Suzan R. Rodenburg
USA
406
Shuming Zhang
China
407
Codie Vickers
USA
408
Richard Tobey 
USA
409
Elfriede Steiner-Grillmair
Canada
410
Michael Wember
USA
411
Gabriele Manzotti
Italy
412
Fuksz Levente
Romania
413
Seppo Tuominen
Finland
414
Marvin C. Katz
USA
415
Laura Fridley
USA
416
Michael Christian
USA
417
Edgar S. Hill
USA
418
Q.John
USA
419
T.Malone
USA
420
Michael Bruttel 
Switzerland
421
Eric W. LaFlamme
USA
422
Robert Diegis
Romania
423
William S. Jarnagin
USA
424
Kevin Glaser
USA
425
Robert Diegis
Romania
426
JoAnn Arcuri
USA
427
Attila Csanyi
USA
428
Pratik Sinha
India
429
Donald C. Bull
New Zealand
430
Hans Walhout
The Netherlands
431
Robyn Stewart
Australia
432
Tor Johannessen
Norway
433
Rick Schmidt
USA
434
Terence Watts
UK
435
Jody Fulford
USA
436
Gene Gordon
USA
437
Monica Veloso Alves
Brazil
438
Ferdi Prins
South Africa
439
Adam Hansil
USA
440
Herbert M Watson
USA
441
John Patchett
UK
442
The Netherlands
443
USA
444
JoAnn Arcuri
USA
445
Martin Gradwell
United Kingdom
446
Sami Murtomäki
Finland
447
Anthony Abruzzo
United States
448
Tim Reed
USA
449
Daniel Rijo
USA
450
Ken Couesbouc
France
451
David L. Harrison
United States
452
Kees de Boer
453
USA
454
David Calder Hardy
New Zealand
455
Belgium
456
Berend de Boer
New Zealand
457
USA
458
Finland
459
USA
469
Maria Alvarez
Argentina
470
Canada
471
Russia
472
Canada
473
USA
474
Australia
475
Australia
476
USA
477
Australia
478
USA
479
USA
481
Physicist
Austria
482
dentist posturologist
België
483
dentist posturologist
België
484
Independant researcher and physicist
Germany
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
Physicist
USA
492
Student
India
493
Student
India
494
Physicist
Poland